Proofreading symbols B21, 22 and 30 often mystify people on our proofreading course
And that’s not surprising. You don’t come across ligatures every day. Many people have never heard of them.
So B21 is an instruction to take the ligature out, and B22 is to put it in. Ligatures are not often used these days. You usually see them on old gravestones and ancient documents.
Another unusual subject from our proofreading course
Similarly, our online proofreading course students often ask their tutors when to use an ellipsis, and how to present them.
They are usually used when you are quoting some material, and want to leave some content out. Some authors use them for effect: to create a feeling of suspense, or to leave the reader thinking.
It’s important to present them so they do not conflict with punctuation, especially full stops.
This is a really helpful article that covers all aspects
Rows of dots are also used as a leader. If you’re inserting the dots as a leader, you have to state the width [or measure] to set them across, eg: 25mm
See our online proofreading course